Prominin-1 (CD133) and its paralogue, prominin-2, are pentaspan membrane glycoproteins that are strongly expressed in the kidney where they have been originally cloned from. Previously, we have described the localization of prominin-1 in proximal tubules of the nephron. The spatial distribution of prominin-2, however, has not yet been documented in the kidney. We therefore examined the expression of this molecule along distinct tubular segments of the human and murine nephron using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Our findings indicated that human prominin-2 transcripts and protein were confined to distal tubules of the nephron including the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and the distal convoluted tubule, the connecting duct and to the collecting duct system. Therein, this glycoprotein was enriched at the basolateral plasma membrane of the tubular epithelial cells with exception of the thick ascending limb where it was also found in the apical domain. This is in contrast with the exclusive apical localization of prominin-1 in epithelial cells of proximal nephron tubules. The distribution of murine prominin-2 transcripts was reminiscent of its human orthologue. In addition, a marked enrichment in the epithelium covering the papilla and in the urothelium of the renal pelvis was noted in mice. Finally, our biochemical analysis revealed that prominin-2 was released into the clinically healthy human urine as a constituent of small membrane vesicles. Collectively our data show the distribution and subcellular localization of prominin-2 within the kidney in situ and its release into the urine. Urinary detection of this protein might offer novel diagnostic approaches for studying renal diseases affecting distal segments of the nephron.